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History and development of niobium

The chemical formulas for tantalum and niobium as two distinct chemical elements were clearly demonstrated in 1864 by Christian William Blomstran (Christian Wilhelm Blomstrand), Henry Edin St. Clair de Ville and Louis Joseph Boutros (Louis Joseph Troost) and identified for some related compounds. A Swiss chemist, Jean-Charles Galissa de Marinia (Jean Charles Galissard de Marignac), further confirmed in 1866 that there were no elements other than tantalum and niobium. But until 1871 scientists published articles about Ilmenium.

In 1864, the reduction of niobium chloride in hydrogen was carried out out in Demarinia, which was first made into niobium metal. Although he was able to prepare niobium metals free of tantalum in 1866, it was not until the early 20th century that niobium began to have commercial applications: light bulb filament. Niobium was soon eliminated by tungsten, which has a higher melting point than niobium and is more suitable for filament materials. In the 1920s, it was found that niobium reinforced steel, which has long been the main use of niobium.

Eugene Kunzler (Eugene Kunzler) of Bell Labs et al. found that niobium tin can still maintain superconductivity in the environment of strong electric field and magnetic field, which makes niobium tin the first high current and magnetic field, which can be used in high power magnets and electric machinery. This discovery prompted the production of multi-unit cables 20 years later. The cable forms a large magnet after winding into a coil, used in rotating machinery, particle accelerators and particle detectors. A pure metal sample was made from Christian Blomstrand in 1864 and was reduced by hydrogen heating to niobium chloride. element profile: element information: a metallic element. Niobium can absorb gas, used as degassing agent, is also a good superconductor. Used to be called'''''''. The chemical symbol Nb, atomic number 41, atomic number 92.90638, belongs to the family B periodic system V. Charles Hachet (Charles•Hatchett) of England isolated the oxide of a new element in a study of niobium iron ore in the British Museum in London in 1801, and named it columbium.

The discovery of another new element in tantalum ore in 1802 tantalum. A.G. Erkberg, Sweden Because these two elements are very similar in nature, many people think they are the same element. He was confused at first because it was very similar to tantalum. Deutschland H. roze examined many niobium and tantalite in detail in 1844, separating two elements to clarify the truth. Finally Charles Hachet named the element after the mythical goddess Niober (Niobe). Historically, niobium was originally called by the name of niobium pyrite ," columbium". the content of niobium [4] in the crust is 0.002%, the natural reserves of niobium in the crust are 5.2 million tons, and the recoverable reserves are 4.4 million tons .[5] the main minerals are niobium iron ore [(Fe,Mn)(nb, ta)2ob], pyrochlorite [Ca,Na ]2(nb, ta, ti)2o6(oh, f) and black rare gold ore, ligno yttrium niobium ore, pyrite, titanate, niobium calcium cerium ore. CAS No .2023-50-5 Isotopes: Niobium naturally produced consists of a stable isotope: Nb.. As of 2003, there were at least 32 types of radioisotopes synthesized, with atomic weights ranging from 81 to 113. The most stable of these is Nb, half-life of 34.7 million years; Nb is one of the most unstable isotopes with an estimated half-life of only 30 milliseconds. Lighter isotopes than Nb generally undergo β decay, and heavier ones undergo β decay. The exceptions include small slow-onset proton emission β Nb、Nb and Nb, electron capture and positron emission, and both positron (β) and electron (β)) emission. [3] There are 25 known isomers with mass numbers ranging from 84 to 104. Of the isotopes in this mass interval, only Nb、Nb and Nb do not have isomers. The most stable niobium isomer is the Nb, half-life of 16.13 years; the most unstable is the Nb, half-life of 103 nanoseconds. With the exception of Nb small amount of electron capture, all isomers decay in the same or β manner.
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