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Application of titanium and titanium alloys in aeronautics and astronautics

The specific strength (strength-to-weight ratio) of titanium and its alloys is very high among metal structural materials. It is as strong as steel, but its weight is only 57% of that of steel. In addition, titanium and its alloy heat resistance is very strong, in the atmosphere of 500℃ can still maintain good strength and stability, short time working temperature can even be higher. While aluminum at 150℃, stainless steel at 310℃ will lose the original mechanical properties. When aircraft, missiles, rockets fly at high speed, the engine and surface temperature is quite high, aluminum alloy is not competent, at this time, the use of titanium alloy is very appropriate. It is because titanium and its alloy has the comprehensive excellent performance of high strength, light weight and high heat resistance, when it is used to replace other metals in aircraft manufacturing, it can not only prolong the service life of the aircraft, but also reduce its weight, so as to greatly improve its flight performance. Therefore, titanium is one of the most promising structural materials in aerospace industry and space industry.

Titanium and its alloys are mainly used in the aviation industry to make aircraft engines and airframes. Generally speaking, aircraft with Mach number less than 2 use part of titanium and its alloy for the engine and aluminum alloy for the fuselage. An aircraft with a Mach number of two uses more titanium in its engines and, in part, in its fuselage. For aircraft with Mach numbers greater than 3.5, the inlet temperature of the engine is so high that titanium cannot be used and super alloys are needed, but the amount of titanium in the fuselage is significantly increased.

Titanium and its alloys have good low temperature resistance, even in - under the temperature of 250 ℃, it still has the high impact strength, resistance to high pressure resistance to vibration, thus, titanium and its alloys on the rocket, missile and spacecraft is not only used in the manufacture of engine casing and structural elements, and used in the manufacture of high pressure vessel, such as high pressure cylinders, cryogenic liquid tank, etc.
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