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Welding technology of niobium and stainless steel

Niobium has excellent thermal strength and high temperature corrosion resistance materials, still has good stability at 1300℃, its welding structure with steel is often used in nuclear power plants and atomic reactors. However, niobium can react in superheated steam and commercial metals (such as Li, K, Na, etc.).Niobium reacted violently with oxygen from 500℃.Reaction with hydrogen at 200 ~ 250℃;Nitride formation begins in nitrogen at 600 ~ 800℃.

Niobium and steel welding has the following characteristics: due to the high chemical activity of niobium, it is highly sensitive to impurities entering the welding area. These impurities will reduce the plasticity of the metal, increase the cold brittleness, and make the welding seam easy to crack. Due to the high melting point of niobium (2497℃), the steel metal will melt while you are still in the solid state, which will cause the loss of liquid steel and affect the smooth welding. Because niobium is easy to be oxidized, the protection of welding area and the purity of welding materials are very high. You have lower density and higher thermal conductivity, so you need to use concentrated heating welding methods, such as electron beam welding, plasma arc welding, tungsten argon arc welding, etc.
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